Combat

Attack rolls:

* Melee attack rolls are modified by either Dex or Str (which ever is higher.) Weapon Finesse allows for Dex to modify damage for Small / Light / Finesse weapons.

* A Natural 20 attack roll is an automatic hit which grants max damage from weapon and bypasses Armor DR. This rule allows the player to get something from a Natural 20 strike even if the crit is not confirmed.

* Two Natural 20’s allow for max weapon damage and add a + 1 to the crit multiplier.

* Three Natural 20’s are an instant kill. 

* Natural 1 = Fumble All Natural 1’s must be declared as they are the property of the DM!

Class Defense Bonus and Armor as DR

* Armor as DR was added as a Straight AC 5 armor (ie chainmail) would give a flat Armor DR 5 / -.

* The following effects completely bypass Armor DR: a Natural 20, Critical Hits, Called Shots (Ultimate Combat), and a successful Bushwacking attack. Likewise a Helpless Defender does not benefit from Armor DR nor Class Defense bonus, and a prone defender is reduced to 1/2 their normal Armor DR.

Class Defense Bonus

* The Class Defense Bonus is one of the primary sources for AC, the other being blocking & shields.

Total Defense (or Total Defense Expert) Combat Manuever and the benefits from Combat Expertise stack under the LCM Ruleset.

Shields

Bucklers and Small Shields add + 1 AC, medium shields add + 2 AC / + 1 to Ref Saves, and heavy shields add + 3/ + 2. Tower Shields provide Improved Cover with a + 4 AC / Improved Evasion (+ 4 Ref Save / Roll twice and take the best result).

Multiple Attackers & Flanking

A defending creature gains a cumulative – 2 penalty to AC for each enemy, beyond the first, that currently threatens it (melee combat only).

Touch Attacks Melee and Ranged Touch attacks gain a +6 bonus to hit on the attack roll.

Weapon Sizes have been simplified to small / medium / large. Example a dagger is small, a long sword medium, and great sword is large. Weapons which are your size or smaller are used one handed, and ones which are 1 category higher are two handed. Weapons greater than 1 size larger may not be used as a melee weapon.

Types of actions and maneuvers

The Types of Actions have been simplified to the following 4 types: Standard Action (includes multiple attacks from high BAB), Move Action, Double Move, and Free Actions. Typically 1 free action allowed per round w/ a few exceptions such as Combat Reflexes. For conversion purposes: Swift Actions, Free Actions, Immediate Actions, etc are all now classified as a "Free Action".

Bushwhacking Rules

The bushwhack rule applies only when a target is flat-footed, completely unaware of an attack against him, and the attacker has 3 rounds to quietly prepare a single attack. If the attack is successful it is considered to be an automatic critical hit, which bypasses Armor DR as per normal for a Critical Hit. Due to the Massive Damage rules used in the campaign most low level NPCs would be instantly killed by such an attack. Creatures immune to critical hits or sneak attacks are immune to bushwhack attacks.

NOTE: this attack can be used even at long range for tactical sniping from a rooftop, etc. If the attacker has a class ability for sneak attack or precision damage determine the attack normally and then apply sneak / precision damage. This damage is still applied at long range for sniping. Bushwhacking can be surprisingly deadly with snipers or hidden rogues, especially when combined with the rules for Massive Damage, and adds a tremendous amount of combat realism. This is a good reason to level skills such as Perception, work as a team, and becoming a little paranoid when going outside and looking at the roof tops of surrounding buildings, etc. Also having an Animal Companion, hireling, mercenary bodyguard, Familiar, etc who can help you look for such things suddenly have much greater value.

Massive Damage Threshold (MDT) and Results

Massive Damage Threshold (MDT): 1/2 Con Score + (LvL x 2)

Fort Save vs MDT: Fort Save DC 15 + 1 / 3 pts dam taken. Success results in a Serious Injury (see Death, Damage and Healing below) but a Fort Save Failure = unconscious and Bleeding Out at -1 HP, regardless of total HP possessed before failing the save.

Toughness, Endurance and Die Hard feats modify the Massive Damage Threshold and save by +2 for each feat taken (see skills and feats). Barbarian Rage increases the MDT while raging (due to increased Con with Rage). 

Death, Damage and Healing

Combat

Lazlo COS Pathfinder - Low Magic lazlo_campaign lazlo_campaign